Here are two examples of abstracts which meet our guidelines.
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The Effect of Manganese-containing Pesticides on Expression of Beta-Amyloid Protein
Alzheimer's disease has a complex mechanism and is not fully understood. As many Alzheimer's patients have no family history of this disease, it may be implied that a metabolic or environmental factor is a cause. These patients' brains present deposits mainly composed of amyloid beta-peptides (AB). Some toxins have shown to elevate beta-amyloid precursor protein (ABPP) expression, thereby increasing AB peptide levels. Some pesticides contain manganese, which in high doses can be toxic and has been shown to increase NF-kappa-B, which activates the transcription of ABPP and AB production. It is hypothesized that the manganese containing pesticides maneb (MB) and mancozeb (MZ) will also increase the expression of ABPP and eventually increase the production of AB. To this end neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells were grown and treated with various concentrations of MB and MZ to create dose-response curves. ABPP expression was measured through Western blot analysis; AB expression was measured through both Western blot analysis and ELISA. Western blot data indicated that ABPP and AB expressions increased in a dose-dependent manner of MZ exposure, but not after MB exposure. Our results suggest MZ increased the expressions of ABPP as early as after 24 hours exposure and that MZ is a stronger inducer for AB expression. In the future, the transcription activation of ABPP after MB and MZ treatments will be determined by using real time PCR.
Bly, Williams, and Klein: The Formless Construct of American Prose Poetry
This paper investigates various scholarly interpretations of the formless construct of American prose poetry since the 1950's. It uses post-structuralist theory to deconstruct poets Robert Bly's, CK Williams's, and Michael Klein's writing style and iteration of the prose form. Building on literary scholar David Orr's contention that poetry is intensely personal and "the pure expression of our inner lives," this project discusses how each poet exemplifies the idea of personal poetry in unique ways. Bly uses the prose form to illuminate the objects around him as he utilizes traditional poetic conventions of image and metaphor to "see" the world and his place in it in novel ways. Williams's prose style is modern, conversational, and informal as he discusses the death of a loved one or a New York City cab ride. Last, Klein adopts a contemporary confessional style, engaging the reader on a deeply intimate level, sometimes uncomfortably so. Alongside close readings of Bly, Williams, and Klein's prose poetry, this paper also engages the current conversation on the prose poetry "form," claiming identifiers that help define true prose poetry.